Valentine’s Day occurs every February 14. Across the United States and in other places around the world, candy, flowers, and gifts are exchanged between loved ones, all in the name of St. Valentine. But who is this mysterious saint and where did these traditions come from? Find out about the history of Valentine’s Day, from the ancient Roman ritual of Lupercalia that welcomed spring to the card-giving customs of Victorian England
- 1 The history of Valentine’s Day
- 2 When is Valentine’s Day?
- 3 What Is Galentine’s Day?
- 4 What is White Valentine’s Day 14/03?
- 5 What is Black Valentine’s Day 14/04?
- 6 Who Is Cupid?
- 7 Typical Valentine’s Day Greetings
- 8 Where is Valentine’s Day celebrated?
- 9 How is Valentine’s Day celebrated?
The history of Valentine’s Day
The history of Valentine’s Day—and the story of its patron saint—is shrouded in mystery. We do know that February has long been celebrated as a month of romance and that St. Valentine’s Day, as we know it today, contains vestiges of both Christian and ancient Roman tradition. But who was Saint Valentine, and how did he become associated with this ancient rite?
Who is Valentine’s Day named for?
The Catholic Church recognizes at least three different saints named Valentine or Valentinus, all of whom were martyred. One legend contends that Valentine was a priest who served during the third century in Rome. When Emperor Claudius II decided that single men made better soldiers than those with wives and families, he outlawed marriage for young men. Valentine, realizing the injustice of the decree, defied Claudius and continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret. When Valentine’s actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death. Still, others insist that it was Saint Valentine of Terni, a bishop, who was the true namesake of the holiday. He, too, was beheaded by Claudius II outside Rome.
Other stories suggest that Valentine may have been killed for attempting to help Christians escape harsh Roman prisons, where they were often beaten and tortured. According to one legend, an imprisoned Valentine actually sent the first “valentine” greeting himself after he fell in love with a young girl—possibly his jailor’s daughter—who visited him during his confinement. Before his death, it is alleged that he wrote her a letter signed “From your Valentine,” an expression that is still in use today. Although the truth behind the Valentine legends is murky, the stories all emphasize his appeal as a sympathetic, heroic, and—most importantly—romantic figure. By the Middle Ages, perhaps thanks to this reputation, Valentine would become one of the most popular saints in England and France.
Source: Valentine’s Day – Wikipedia
When is Valentine’s Day?
Origins of Valentine’s Day: A Pagan Festival in February
While some believe that Valentine’s Day is celebrated in the middle of February to commemorate the anniversary of Valentine’s death or burial—which probably occurred around A.D. 270—others claim that the Christian church may have decided to place St. Valentine’s feast day in the middle of February in an effort to “Christianize” the pagan celebration of Lupercalia. Celebrated at the ides of February, or February 15, Lupercalia was a fertility festival dedicated to Faunus, the Roman god of agriculture, as well as to the Roman founders Romulus and Remus.
To begin the festival, members of the Luperci, an order of Roman priests, would gather at a sacred cave where the infants Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, were believed to have been cared for by a she-wolf or Lupa. The priests would sacrifice a goat, for fertility, and a dog, for purification. They would then strip the goat’s hide into strips, dip them into the sacrificial blood and take to the streets, gently slapping both women and crop fields with the goat hide. Far from being fearful, Roman women welcomed the touch of the hides because it was believed to make them more fertile in the coming year. Later in the day, according to legend, all the young women in the city would place their names in a big urn. The city’s bachelors would each choose a name and become paired for the year with his chosen woman. These matches often ended in marriage.
Lupercalia survived the initial rise of Christianity but was outlawed—as it was deemed “un-Christian”—at the end of the 5th century, when Pope Gelasius declared February 14 St. Valentine’s Day. It was not until much later, however, that the day became definitively associated with love. During the Middle Ages, it was commonly believed in France and England that February 14 was the beginning of birds’ mating season, which added to the idea that the middle of Valentine’s Day should be a day for romance. The English poet Geoffrey Chaucer was the first to record St. Valentine’s Day as a day of romantic celebration in his 1375 poem “Parliament of Foules,” writing, “For this was sent on Seynt Valentyne’s day / Whan every foul cometh there to choose his mate.”
The Seven Days of Valentine Week!
The month of February brings excitement into lovers’ hearts and much anticipation all around. It’s Valentine’s Month! During this month, from the 7th to the 14th, the world will be celebrating Valentine’s week, starting with Rose Day. Each day has a special significance. Here are the days of the build-up to Valentine’s Day – Rose Day, Propose Day, Chocolate Day, Teddy Day, Promise Day, Kiss Day, and Hug Day— and then finally – Valentine’s Day!
What Is Galentine’s Day?
Galentine’s Day, formed by a blend of gal and Valentine’s Day, is a day in which women celebrate their female friendships. The new holiday debuted in a 2010 episode of Parks and Recreation. The term is also seeing increased use in celebrating any kind of friendship, not just those among women.
Many people have a kind of love-hate relationship with Valentine’s Day: the holiday is disparaged as a manufactured holiday foisted upon us by greeting card companies, and there’s often a sense that it’s only for people who are romantically paired, making it feel rooted in exclusion.
All of which sets the stage perfectly for Galentine’s Day.
Galentine’s Day—a blend of Valentine’s Day and gal—was introduced to the world by the chipper and dedicated Leslie Knope, the fictional Deputy Director of the Parks and Recreation Department of the also-fictional city of Pawnee, Indiana, in the NBC comedy Parks and Recreation, which ran from 2009 to 2015.
That’s right: Galentine’s Day—a day for women to celebrate their friendships with their lady friends. It’s Valentine’s Day with your gals
Gather all of your gal pals, warm up the waffle-maker and mark your calendars for Galentine’s Day on February 13. In a season that’s so focused on romantic love, those who don’t have someone to cuddle with on the big 1-4 might feel a little forlorn at the constant reminders of their singlehood. That’s where this most joyful holiday comes into play. Whether you’re gleefully single, happily coupled, or somewhere in between, taking a day to recognize the importance of friendship can only help strengthen some of the most important relationships in our lives.
What is White Valentine’s Day 14/03?
White Valentine’s Day originated in Japan in the 60s of the 20th century, held on March 14 every year, one month after Red Valentine’s Day took place. Many people accept this day with the meaning of reciprocating the other’s feelings if they are confessed before on February 14. The boys will return the affection of the girl who loves them during the past time with a meaningful gift or touching words. For girls, White Valentine’s Day is probably a day “full of suspense and anticipation” because they all look forward to receiving a gift affirming their affection from the boy they love.
What is Black Valentine’s Day 14/04?
Black Valentine’s Day originated in Korea and usually takes place on April 14 every year. Called Black Valentine because on this day, single boys and girls will invite each other to eat black noodles. They want to affirm that even if they are still single, they are still happy. Today, on Black Valentine’s Day, many people gather together to celebrate the singles day. So, Black Valentine is seen as a vibrant holiday instead of as romantic as Red Valentine, who says single people are sad?
On Black Valentine’s Day, anyone can give each other gifts, as long as both the giver and the recipient are single.
Who Is Cupid?
Cupid is often portrayed on Valentine’s Day cards as a naked cherub launching arrows of love at unsuspecting lovers. But the Roman God Cupid has his roots in Greek mythology as the Greek god of love, Eros. Accounts of his birth vary; some say he is the son of Nyx and Erebus; others, of Aphrodite and Ares; still others suggest he is the son of Iris and Zephyrus or even Aphrodite and Zeus (who would have been both his father and grandfather).
According to the Greek Archaic poets, Eros was a handsome immortal who played with the emotions of Gods and men, using golden arrows to incite love and leaden ones to sow aversion. It wasn’t until the Hellenistic period that he began to be portrayed as the mischievous, chubby child he’d become on Valentine’s Day cards.
Typical Valentine’s Day Greetings
Valentine greetings were popular as far back as the Middle Ages, though written Valentine’s didn’t begin to appear until after 1400. The oldest known valentine still in existence today was a poem written in 1415 by Charles, Duke of Orleans, to his wife while he was imprisoned in the Tower of London following his capture at the Battle of Agincourt. (The greeting is now part of the manuscript collection of the British Library)
In addition to the United States, Valentine’s Day is celebrated in Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia. In Great Britain, Valentine’s Day began to be popularly celebrated around the 17th century.
By the middle of the 18th, it was common for friends and lovers of all social classes to exchange small tokens of affection or handwritten notes, and by 1900 printed cards began to replace written letters due to improvements in printing technology. Ready-made cards were an easy way for people to express their emotions in a time when direct expression of one’s feelings was discouraged. Cheaper postage rates also contributed to an increase in the popularity of sending Valentine’s Day greetings.
Americans probably began exchanging hand-made valentines in the early 1700s. In the 1840s, Esther A. Howland began selling the first mass-produced valentines in America. Howland, known as the “Mother of the Valentine,” made elaborate creations with real lace, ribbons, and colorful pictures known as “scrap.” Today, according to the Greeting Card Association, an estimated 145 million Valentine’s Day cards are sent each year, making Valentine’s Day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year (more cards are sent at Christmas).
Where is Valentine’s Day celebrated?
The day is popular in the United States as well as in Britain, Canada, and Australia, and it is also celebrated in other countries, including Argentina, France, Mexico, and South Korea. In the Philippines, it is the most common wedding anniversary, and mass weddings of hundreds of couples are not uncommon on that date. The holiday has expanded to expressions of affection among relatives and friends. Many schoolchildren exchange valentines with one another on this day.
How is Valentine’s Day celebrated?
Over the years (and centuries), Valentine’s Day has been a religious celebration, an ancient ritual day, and a commercial holiday. All that change means the meaning of Valentine’s Day is truly whatever you want it to be: You can skip the celebrations completely, buy yourself some chocolate or flowers, or express your love and appreciation for the people in your life, whether they’re co-workers, romantic partners, friends, or family members. Some people love Valentine’s Day, and some people just love to hate it; Galentine’s Day is a relatively new way to celebrate, as women celebrate their love for their closest friends.
To celebrate the day of love however you want, even if it’s just through self-love. A nice dinner out, going to the movies, cooking a fancy meal at home, or hosting Valentine’s Day party are also great ways to celebrate.